Background: A 2D game scene is usually composed of a background image with many sprites displayed over it. When this background is a moving image, you have a scrolling background, which is the main characteristic in games called scrollers. It s also worth mentioning parallax scrolling, a special scrolling technique in which the 2D game has more than one scrolling background with different scrolling speeds, which provides the illusion of a 3D environment. For example, while the player character moves to the left, trees and bushes behind it move at the player s speed, mountains far away from the character move slowly, and clouds in the sky move very slowly.

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The configuration of a service shown for a JDBC session factory in Listing 4-16 can be swapped for the configuration shown in Listing 4-17 without changing the behavior of the application as a whole.

Tip The Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) site has a nice example of how to improve the Platformer

<bean id="hibernateUserAccountDao" class="com.apress.timesheets.dao.hibernate.HibernateUserAccountDaoImpl" p:sessionFactory-ref="sessionFactory"/>

Starter Kit (which comes as a new game project type when you install XNA 3.0) by including levels with parallax scrolling. You can find this example at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ dd254919.aspx.

Tiles: These are small images used as tiles to compose a bigger image, usually a level background. For example, platform games typically use tiles to create different platform levels based on the same basic images. The term tiled map is often used to describe game levels created with tiles, and sometimes to describe files with the information needed to create such levels based on tiles. A classic example of the use of tiles is for building a terrain. Role-playing games (RPGs) usually provide a level editor application that lets you build the levels by picking different tiles from the application and joining them together. In the next sections, you ll create a simple XNA program to demonstrate the concepts of drawing sprites, moving them on the screen, and handling sprite collisions with other sprites and with the game window border. However, before you start coding, let s take a quick look at the 2D coordinate systems and screen coordinates.

<bean id="userAccountService" class="com.apress.timesheets.service.UserAccountServiceImpl" p:userAccountDao-ref="hibernateUserAccountDao"/>

While it s not our goal to cover all math concepts involved in creating 2D games, if you understand the basic ideas introduced in this chapter, you ll be able to build on this knowledge when creating your own 2D games and easily comprehend other related concepts.

You will not always want all the elements of an association loaded on all occasions that the parent entity is loaded. As an extreme example, consider a product catalog. Loading the basic details of the product catalog (such as its description) does not necessarily justify loading all of the associated details of the products contained within that catalog. Hibernate approaches this problem by allowing you to specify that associations are to be loaded lazily. When using the XML configuration files, this is the default behavior, but when using annotations (in order to comply with the JPA standard), it is not and I have therefore specified this explicitly in my annotations. Generally, lazy loading offers superior performance, so I would recommend turning on eager (the opposite of lazy) loading only when you have a specific performance problem and a reason to believe that lazy loading is the cause. The problem with lazy loading is that in order to allow the associated entities to be loaded at some later point than the loading of the original entity, it becomes necessary to create proxy objects to represent the real association objects, and to keep a reference to the Hibernate session in order to retain access to the database. If for any reason the session object is closed (releasing the associated database connection) prior to the attempt to access the lazy association, an exception will be thrown the notorious LazyInitializationException. Understanding the cause of the problem is half the battle, however, and Spring provides several tools allowing automated management of the Hibernate session to prevent the problem from arising. The HibernateSessionFilter approach used to resolve this problem in the example application is discussed in more depth in 6.

In this section, you ll create the GenerateTerrainIndices method to generate the indices of the terrain s mesh. The mesh s indices define in which order the vertices should be combined to generate triangles. Figure 11-4 shows the indices of the vertices in a grid and how they are combined to form triangles.

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